child safety
Car Safety

Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death for children in the United States. At particular risk are infants and other children who ride unrestrained, improperly restrained, or are too close to the instrument panel during a collision.

When used correctly, child restraints and safety belts are 50% to 70% effective in preventing fatalities and reducing serious injuries.

To protect children in motor vehicles, please remember these points:

  • All infants and young children should be secured correctly in appropriate child restraints.
  • A rear seat is the safer place for all children to be secured.
  • Air bags do not replace the need for all motor vehicle occupants to be properly restrained. Unrestrained occupants of any age are at increased risk of being injured or killed in a collision. Unrestrained occupants in the front seat are especially at risk of possible injury or death from an inflating air bag.
  • The use of child restraints and safety belts is a learned habit.

Georgia Law mandates that all children be restrained in an appropriate car seat. Requirements differ based on your child's age and weight. All children should be restrained in rear facing car seats until they are at least 20 lbs. and one year of age. New research is recommending that children remain rear facing until 2 years of age.

Georgia law states that children cannot sit in a booster seat until they are at least 4 years of age and 40 pounds. A booster seat must be used until the child is 6 years of age and at least 40 pounds. However, booster seats are actually recommended until a child weighs at least 80 pounds and is 8 years old. In compliance with the most current safety regulations, all children under 13 years old should ride in the backseat.

Child Restraint Recommendations:

Approx. Age of Child Approx. Size of Child Type of Child Restraint
Premature/low birth weight infants Premature/low birth weight infants Infant Car Bed
Birth to 1 year Birth to 20 lbs Rear-facing Infant Restraint
1 to 4 years 20 to 40 lbs; 26" to 40" tall Forward-facing Child Restraint
4 to 8 years 40 to 80 lbs Booster Seat

For more information on safety belts, child restraints and air bags, call 866 700-0001 to receive a free copy of the 32-page illustrated booklet.

For more in depth information please click on the links below:





Childproofing Your Home

Providing a safe environment for your child is extremely important and that starts at home. 

Although there are many devices that we can and in most cases should purchase, it is not a substitute for close supervision and common sense.  Infants and young children should not be left unsupervised for any amount of time.  Children are notorious for being able to circumvent safety devices faster than adults.  Bottom line is that you cannot stop an unsafe action or situation from developing if you are not there with your child.

Placement of cabinet locks, installing electrical outlet covers, locks for your oven and toilets, cord wraps and ties, safety corners placed on sharp edges, and gates to protect stairways (even when there is a door) are a must.

Put all toxic cleaners, poisonous substances, vitamins, and drugs on high shelves or in high cabinets. Remember even if something typically is not dangerous when consumed, when it is consumed in large amounts it can be deadly (i.e. iron supplements).

TVs and microwaves should be secured in or on sturdy cabinets that cannot be turned over when pulled on.  Shelving units, chests and freestanding cabinets should be secured to the wall (they can be used as ladders).  Shoes should be worn outside and in unfinished basements.  Lock all cabinets or trunks.

Basically, if it can fall on your child then secure it or remove it.  If your child can fall into it or crawl into it, then lock it.  If your child can drink it or eat it, then put it high enough that they cannot possibly get to it.  If it is sharp, then pad it, remove it, or lock it up.  If your child can fall down it (stairs), then put a secure gate in place.  If your child is sleeping in another room, then use a baby monitor.

For more in depth information please click on the links

Prevent Injuries from Falls

Injuries from falling down are common for all age groups, but one year olds have the highest rate of falls requiring medical attention. Approximately, one out of every ten children (1-3 years old) will receive medical treatment for or evaluation of a fall.

One out of eight falls are due to stairs, while the rest are falling from one surface to another. An example of this is running, tripping, and then falling onto a piece of furniture such as a coffee table or falling down an incline or off a ledge.

Tips for reducing injuries resulting from falls:

  • DO NOT use baby walkers
  • Install gates to prevent access to staircases (even if there is a door)
  • Choose safe playground equipment and install it where the ground is soft (over sand, wood chips, or grass -- NOT over concrete or clay)
  • Require children to wear helmets and protective clothes when using bikes, skateboards, scooters, roller blades, skates, etc..
  • Use side rails on bunk beds and make sure they meet safety guidelines (old bunk beds can be dangerous)
  • DO NOT leave a baby or young child unsupervised on a counter, table, bed (even if they have "never rolled over before" because that may turn out to be their first time rolling and falling)
  • DO NOT allow jumping on the bed or furniture
  • NEVER allow a child to ride in the back of a pickup truck or in anything where they are not secured.
  • If you are going to have a trampoline, then make sure that it has a safety enclosure

Gun Safety

Children have a high risk of encountering a gun at some time during their childhood. Thousands of children are injured in gun related incidents each year.  It is important for parents to educate their children about gun safety and reduce the risk of harm to them from firearms.

If there is a gun in your house:

The best protection against gun related injury is removing the gun from your house. If you choose to keep guns in your home, including your car, garage, or anywhere else on your property,then use the following safety guidelines:

  • Keep all guns LOCKED and UNLOADED
  • Keep the bullets and ammunition in a separate locked place
  • If you have a rifle -- use a gun safe or trigger lock
  • If you have a handgun -- use a portable lock box with a combination lock.  This lock box should be secured to the floor or wall.

If there is a NOT a gun in your house:

Your child may encounter a gun, whether you personally have a gun or not.  Parents should discuss gun safety with their children. This should include teaching them:

  • NEVER to pick up a gun.
  • NEVER to accept a gun from a friend (even if they are told it is unloaded).
  • Immediately go to the nearest adult for help if a gun is found (no matter whether the gun is inside or outside the house)
  • If their friend has a gun or they see someone with a gun, then they should leave immediately and notify an adult
  • Teach children that guns are not a toys
  • If a child is old enough to hunt, then they should have gun safety courses first.

Gun safety rules should be reviewed with children very often, so that it stays fresh in their minds.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on gun safety: 

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas that is produced from the incomplete burning of carbon based fuels (such as natural gas, propane, coal, oil, gasoline, charcoal, or wood).

Appliances in good repair do not produce significant amounts of CO, however, improperly functioning appliances or extremely old appliances can produce high quantities of CO. Other sources of carbon monoxide include automobiles, lawn mowers, and fireplaces.

The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are difficult to distinguish from the common flu. Symptoms include headache, fatigue,shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness. It is important to be familiar with this issue as carbon monoxide poisoning can produce fatal results.

The best treatment of CO poisoning is prevention. It is strongly recommended to install a CO detectors in every household and provide frequent maintenance of your appliances and fireplaces. CO detectors should be placed in all rooms with fireplaces or wood burning stoves, near where gas water heaters are installed, in kitchens with gas appliances, laundry rooms with gas dryers, in all garages, in basements, and in all rooms with gas, portable, or propane heaters.

NOTE: A carbon monoxide detector does NOT take the place of smoke alarms. They serve two completely different functions. Smoke alarms should be installed throughout your home, too.

We recommend the following:

  • Install a carbon monoxide detectors that meet the requirements of the Underwriters Laboratories 2034 or International Approval Service 6-96 standard
  • Annually, in the fall, have a qualified technician inspect and check for gas leaks in your central and room heating appliances, water heaters, gas stoves/ovens, gas dryers, vents, flues, and chimneys.
  • Install appliances according to manufacturer's instructions. Most appliances, especially gas, should be installed by professionals. Use your appliances only as recommended by the manufacturer.
  • DO NOT use a gas range or oven to heat the house
  • DO NOT burn charcoal in a garage or in the house
  • DO NOT use a grill indoors or in a an area that is not well ventilated
  • DO NOT leave a car running in the garage
  • Know the difference between the sounds of your smoke alarm and CO detector

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on carbon monoxide safety: 

Poison Control

Since infants and children love to put everything they find into their mouths, it is possible that they will swallow a harmful object or substance. This includes, but is not limited to the following items:

  • another person's medicines
  • rat poison
  • cleaning supplies
  • vitamins
  • lawn and garden chemicals
  • paint
  • car products
  • bug spay
  • hair care products
  • fingernail polish and remover

Be prepared ahead of time:

  • Have the poison control phone number in an accessible place (such as the refrigerator door next to the phone, in a cabinet near a phone)

    POISON CONTROL CENTER's number is 404-616-9000

    Make sure that your babysitters know where this number is located.

If your child swallows a harmful substance:

  • If your child is unconscious, not breathing, difficult to awaken, blue, having seizures, etc, then call 911 immediately otherwise... Call poison control (404-616-9000) and follow their instructions.
  • After your child has been treated by emergency personnel and your child is stable, call our office, tell us what occurred, and inquire whether you need a follow-up visit.

Remember, your best safeguard against accidental poisonings is to keep all household cleaning agents, medications, and toxic substances safely out of reach of your children.

Click on the links below to be directed to guides on preventing accidental poisonings: 

Be careful using hand sanitizer on children due to the risk of ingesting alcohol.

Fire Safety

The best defense against injury or death due to house fires is simply preparedness.  Preparedness includes the following items:

  • Install SMOKE ALARMS - These should be tested regularly to make sure that they are in working order. Batteries should be replaced at least yearly.
  • Have an ESCAPE PLAN - Plan should include the following:
    1. Plan at least 2 exits (if available) from each room and/or 2 routes from the house.
    2. Instruct children not to go back in once they are out and not to hesitate.
    3. Plan a meeting spot outside where the family will meet.
    4. Rehearse every 6 months.
  • Instruct kids in fire safety(older than 3)
    1. What does your home's smoke alarm sound like?
    2. If they hear smoke alarm, then they should leave the house immediately and go to the designated meeting place.
    3. If smoke is in a room then crawl on hands and knees under the smoke.  Put a wet cloth/ towel or clothing over their mouths if available.
    4. If clothes are on fire, then stop, drop, and roll.  Douse with cold water as soon as possible and seek professional treatment for burns.  DO NOT put creams or ointments on burns unless directed by a healthcare professional.
    5. Children should be instructed to get out of a house or area and call 911, instead of trying to put fires out themselves.  Fires can quickly get out of control, trapping them or causing severe injury.            
  • FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: - These should be located in every room of the house where fires are possible (kitchen, garage, near grill, near fireplace, in the basement, etc.)  Adults should regularly review the instructions for their use and check expiration dates.  Note: expired extinguishers can be used for practice.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on fire safety: 

Sun Exposure / Sunscreen

The sun is the main cause of skin cancer and skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. Research indicates that it only takes two or more blistering sunburns as a child or teen increases the risk of developing skin cancer later in life. Repeated sunburns and tanning can cause premature aging of the skin, as well as, increase the risk of skin cancer.

Sunburn is caused by an overexposure of the skin to UV rays of the sun. UV rays can bounce off sand, concrete, water, and snow, too. UV rays can penetrate through clouds on an overcast day. UV rays can penetrate through umbrellas, canopies, and tents if they are not tightly woven and rated for UV protection.

Sunburn can be extremely painful, but usually does not show any signs or symptoms until a few hours after the sunburn has occurred. The skin usually becomes red and tender, but sometimes the skin can blister, too. If it blisters, then it is a second degree burn.

The following is a list of tips to aid in the prevention of sunburns:

  • Keep babies under 6 months old out of direct sunlight
  • Minimize exposure between 10:00 AM and 3:00 PM when the suns rays are the strongest.
  • Use sunscreens (6 months and older):
  • 1) Use broad spectrum sunscreens to protect against both UVA and UVB rays.

    2) Waterproof sunscreens stay on longer, even when sweating.

    3) Choose PABA free sunscreens when possible.

    4) Minimum SPF 30 sunscreen is recommended. Higher SPF is recommended for children (SPF 30-100 are available). Choose the highest possible for young children.

    5) If you have a fair skinned child you should use SPF 30 or greater.

    6) Apply more than 30 minutes prior to sun exposure.

    7) Reapply every 80 minutes (or after swimming even if waterproof).

    8) Apply higher SPF to face. Do not forget ears, back of neck, and under chin.

    9) Test your sunscreen on a small portion of the back to see if your child has an adverse reaction before applying to the whole body. There are hypoallergenic sunscreens available.

    10) Infants under 6 months should not be in the sun, however 4-5 month olds can have sunscreen applied to arms and legs.

    11) Sunscreen is not a reason to stay out in the sun longer than necessary. It should be used as protection when you NEED to be out in the sun. Stay in the shade when possible.

  • Use sunglasses with UV protection.
  • Dress children in light weight, long sleeve shirts, long pants, and hats with brims covering the ears when you can.
  • Wear hats with brims at all times if not in the water. EARS and the back of the neck are often forgotten. Hats help protect these areas, as well as, shielding the eyes and face.
  • If swimming, wear specially woven swim shirts designed to stop UV rays.
  • Use sunscreen on yourself, wear your sunglasses, and your hat! It sets a good example for your children to see you do the same things that you want them to do.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on sun safety:

Water Safety

It is a popular pastime to play in and around water.  Whether swimming, fishing, boating, playing water sports, or just enjoying being near water, it is fun.  It can also be DANGEROUS!

Be prepared, so that fun does not turn into tragedy. Know how to swim and follow basic water safety rules, so that you, your family, and friends can have fun both in and around water.


Swimming Pool Safety:

  • Have a shepherd's hook and a life preserver in the pool area.
  • Fence in the pool area on all four sides and keep the gates/entries locked at all times.
  • Learn CPR. Even if CPR is not performed correctly, it can save lives.
  • If possible, when not in use, the pool should be covered and locked.  There are many pool covers available that cover the entire pool, lock into the concrete and can sustain the wait of several adults.  This will ensure that if a child gets into the area that there cannot be an accidental drowning.
  • Pool alarms can be activated to alert anyone in the vicinity that someone has accidentally fallen in the pool. Alarms can be used on the gates, too. 
  • Someone that can swim should always be sitting on the side watching everyone else in the pool, in case someone becomes distressed or tired and needs help.
  • Learn how to swim and how to tread water.  All children 4-5 years of age should start swimming lessons. However, remember swimming lessons do not save your child from drowning only following safety rules can.

Your child should practice and obey the following rules:

  • An adult must be present when children are swimming or playing in the water.
  • No diving unless an adult who knows the depth of the water has given permission
  • No running, rough play, bike riding near the pool or water
  • No glass or breakable dishes near the pool.
  • Children should wear a life jacket at all times if on a boat or other water vehicle. Even if they know how to swim or are sleeping they need to wear a life jacket. 
  • Young children should wear a life jacket at all times around water. (i.e. on a pier or at a lake edge)
  • Wear sunscreen
  • Drink water constantly , so as not get dehydrated
  • Children should not use inflatable toys or rafts in water deeper than their waist if the do not know how to swim.
  • Always swim with a buddy.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on water safety: 

Insect Repellent

Insect repellent can be used to repel insects that carry viruses and cause stinging, itching bites.  Insects are going to be prevalent in shady cool areas, wet or damp areas, and dusk through early morning.  Apply insect repellant at dusk to early morning hours. Take care to dress your child properly and take precautions to limit insect bites.

Insect repellent can be applied on children 2 months and older. The repellent should contain no more than 30% DEET. Apply sparingly to exposed skin and clothing only. Do not apply to skin under clothing. Do not use insect repellent on the hands of young children, because they may put them in their mouths.

Do not use a sunscreen containing DEET on a child’s face. When using sprays, do not spray directly on face - spray on your hands first and then apply to your child's face. Avoid applying to areas around the eyes and mouth.

Do not use DEET over cuts, wounds or irritated skin.

It is okay to use sunscreen and a bug repellent containing DEET at the same time. The sunscreen will wash off, whereas DEET is not water soluble and can last up to 8 hours.

One application of bug repellent should cover your child for the entire day.

Wash treated skin with soap and water after returning indoors. Wash treated clothing as well.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on insect repellent safety:

Bikes, Skateboards, Scooters, and Roller Blades

Bikes and Scooters

Using a bit of common sense when riding your scooter or bike can ensure you not only have fun, but get where you are going safely. Below are some helpful recommendations for getting around on your bikes and scooters safely.

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Recommendations:

  • Wear a helmet, knee pads and elbow pads. (Wrist guards may make it difficult to grip the handle and steer). HELMET SHOULD BE WORN PROPERLY!
  • Children under age 8 should not use non-powered scooters without close adult supervision. Children under 12 should not ride motorized scooters.
  • Children under 8 should be supervised when riding bikes and scooters
  • Avoid gravel and uneven pavement, which can cause falls.
  • Don't ride bikes or scooters in traffic or on busy streets.
  • Don't ride bikes or scooters at night - riders can't see where they're going or be seen by others.
  • Wear sturdy shoes.

Skating and Skateboarding

In-line skating and skateboarding are fun and great exercise for children. To help prevent injuries, have your child take lessons before playing on his own. Children need to know how to stop, slow down, and avoid collisions.

The International In-Line Skating Association offers the following helpful guidelines:

  • Before skateboarding or skating, parents should check equipment thoroughly for hazards such as loose, broken or cracked parts, slippery top surfaces and wheels with nicks and cracks.
  • Always wear appropriate safety gear including a helmet, wrist guards, and elbow and knee pads.
  • Be sure protective gear fits properly and does not interfere with your child’s movement, vision or hearing.
  • Never ride in the street. Ride on smooth, paved surfaces free of traffic. Avoid streets or surfaces with water, sand, gravel or dirt.
  • Do not skateboard or skate at night.
  • Never hitch a ride from a car, bus, truck, bicycle, etc.
  • If a move seems risky, do not try it.
  • Do complicated moves only in designated areas. Skate parks are a great place for safe skateboarding and in-line skating.
  • Children ages 8 and younger should not use bikes, skateboards, skates or scooters without close adult supervision.
  • Use caution when skateboarding or skating. If the hill is steep, step off and walk to the bottom of the hill.
  • Use all of the protective equipment and pads appropriate for the activity.

Click on these links for more information on bike, scooter, skateboard, and skating safety:


Playgrounds are a part of childhood.  They are fun and help children exercise. Safety is probably the last thing that comes to mind when you think about playgrounds, but it should really be the first. Safety and fun go hand in hand.

Below is a simple checklist to follow for playground safety:

  1. Playgrounds should have a shock absorbing surface around them. At least 9 inches of wood chips, mulch, or shredded rubber should be used for equipment up to 7 feet high.  If sand or pea gravel is used then there should be 9 inches for equipment up to 5 feet high.  Surfacing mats or safety-tested rubber may also be used for equipment per manufacturer’s guidelines.
  2. Protective surface should be a minimum of 6 feet in all directions of playground equipment.  In swing areas, surfacing should be twice the height of the to bar that the swings are suspended from
  3. NEVER ATTACH – ropes, pet leashes, jump ropes, clothesline, etc, because children can strangle on these.
  4. Check for exposed bolts, screws, or “s” hooks as these can cause severe lacerations and are hazardous.
  5. Check for spaces where children can become trapped. Such as openings between guard rails or ladder rungs.  These spaces should be less than 3.5 inches apart or more than 9 inches apart.
  6. Make sure that ramps and platforms have guardrails.
  7. Check for sharp points or edges on equipment.
  8. Remove tripping hazards. Examples of these are hidden braces/stakes for equipment, tree stumps, rocks, and concrete footings.
  9. Check playground equipment and surfacing on a regular basis to make sure that they are in good condition.  Most likely at the beginning of every spring there should be a major maintenance scheduled, you will need to bring in extra shock absorbing material, repaint, replace broken covers on screws and bolts, tighten or replace any parts that have come loose or have broken over time.  Monthly inspections are recommended throughout the year.
  10. SUPERVISION is the most important thing that can be done to insure that children are safe on playgrounds. Children can use equipment in an unsafe manner if they are not supervised and children that become injured will need proper treatment.
  11. Check areas weekly for ant beds and treat.  It is recommended to put down a once a year treatment for fire ants at the beginning of spring to prevent fire ants from making beds around the playground.
  12. Check weekly for stinging insect nests.  They like to use the underside of playground equipment and can be dangerous to children.
  13. Wooden playground equipment should not be made of wood treated with arsenic. CCA is the chemical in pressure treated wood that contained arsenic.  It was discontinued in wood for residential use on Dec. 31, 2003.  Older wooden playgrounds may have this type of wood and they should be replaced. Creosote-treated and coatings with pesticides should not be used.
  14. Sandboxes should be contained and covered every evening to prevent animals from leaving droppings in them.  Use sterilized sand. Completely replace sand periodically.
  15. Metal playground equipment should have no lead in the paint.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on playground safety:

Lawn Mowers

Lawn mowers can cause serious injury, especially to children.

It is recommended to follow these safety guidelines for lawn mowers:

  • Children under 6 years should be kept inside when mowing
  • Children should not be allowed to play on or around a mower being used or being stored
  • Children should not be allowed to ride as a passenger on a mower
  • Children should not be towed behind a mower (in carts or trailers for example)

Children should not operate a mower until he/she has developed the appropriate levels of the following:

  • Judgment
  • Strength
  • Coordination
  • Maturity

A starting guideline for the minimum age for lawn mower operation is as follows:

  • For walk behind power mowers: 12 years
  • For ride on mowers: 16 years

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on lawn mower safety: 

Plants and Poison Ivy

Both indoor and outdoor plants can be poisonous. You should know the plants inside your home and outside.  Poisonous plants inside your home should be removed.  Teach your children that they should NEVER eat berries, mushrooms, flowers, or leaves that they find outside.  They should never put their hands in their mouth, eat, or rub their eyes after touching plants until they have thoroughly washed their hands.

Though deceptively attractive, some common flowers and plants can give you headaches, cause convulsions or simply kill you, according to the "Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants" (Springer, 2007). Children under 6 are especially vulnerable; they account for 85 percent of all calls to poison centers, though the most commonly consumed culprits in poison cases are cosmetics, personal care products, cleansers and pills. Most plants are safe, but here are some you need to know about. They might be in your own yard or even in the house.

Please click on the links below to be directed to in-depth information on plants:

Crib and Bunk Bed Safety

According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the National SAFE KIDS Campaign, parents should have a detailed furniture safety inspection before using a crib for their child. Cribs are frequently handed down in families or bought used, but they need to meet current safety guidelines before they are used.

Do not use a crib if it:

  • Has been recalled (a list can be obtained at
  • Has slats more than 2 3/8 inches apart
  • Has slats that are missing, loose, cracked, splintered
  • Has sharp or jagged edges
  • Has cutouts in the headboard or footboard
  • Has latches that can be released by a young child

Guidelines for the mattress:

  • It must fit snugly into the crib
  • It must be on a support that is securely attached to the head and foot boards
  • It must have a well fitted crib sheet (do not use regular adult sheets)

Also, check the screws/bolts to make sure that all parts are tight and that there are not any screws/bolts that are missing.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on crib safety: 

Bunk Bed Safety

Bunk bed guidelines have been developed due to the number of injuries that children sustain from bunk beds. As with cribs, many are handed down in families or purchased used.  Make sure that the ones you ultimately use meet the current guidelines for safety.

A new mandatory standard for bunk beds is expected to improve safety for the hundreds of thousands of children who use them. Since mid-2000, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission requires all bunk beds sold in the United States to comply with these standards:

  • Every bunk bed must have an affixed label that states the bed's manufacturer, model, and mattress size information.
  • Every bunk bed must have a warning label that advises against placing children under six years of age in the upper bunk.
  • If the bunk bed is taller than 30 inches, it must have a continuous guardrail on the wall side of bed.
  • Openings on the upper and the lower bunks must be small enough that a child's head, torso, or limb cannot pass through them.

Bunk Bed Safety Tips

  • Follow instructions carefully when assembling a new bunk bed.
  • Allow only children six years or older to sleep on upper bunks.
  • Use only proper-sized, manufacturer-recommended mattresses.
  • Make sure that there are no openings in either the upper or lower bunk that are large enough for a child's head, torso, or limb to pass through.
  • Discuss safety concerns and the proper usage of bunk beds with your children.

Please click on the links below to be directed to guides on Bunk Bed safety: 

Product Recalls

Product Recalls should be monitored continually as they are updated.

A complete listing of product recalls including products and toys for children by the United States Consumer and Product and Safety Commission, can be found by clicking on the link listed below:

Product Recalls by Category

The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent Federal Regulatory Agency that works to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths associated with consumer products.

For detailed information on the CPSC please click the link listed below:

Consumer Product Safety Commission

CPR and Choking

All parents and caregivers should learn CPR and what to do in the case of choking.  Everyone should be prepared to assist a child if they are choking or in need of CPR.

Information on CPR training  - Call 404-250-kids then press"4" and at the next prompt press "1". A class only takes a few hours and it can save a life!

Additional sources of information about CPR classes can be found by contacting the following:

  • North Fulton Hospital: 770-751-2660
  • Northside Hospital: 404-845-5555
  • The American Red Cross: 404-262-7010
  • The American Heart Association: 770-952-1316

YOU SHOULD RECEIVE TRAINING BEFORE ADMINISTERING CPR, but here is the procedure to refresh your memory:

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the term used to describe the procedure in which oxygen is manually delivered and heartbeat is manually restored in individuals who have stopped breathing and and/or have no heartbeat. CPR for children is delivered to people 1 to 8 years.


Reasons for Procedure:

CPR is administered to a child who is not breathing. Reasons for this may include:

  • Sudden cardiac arrest
  • Cardiovascular accident
  • Traua
  • Burns
  • Choking
  • Drowning
  • Electrical shocks and lightning strikes
  • Severe infection
  • Drug overdose
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Hypothermia

Risk Factors for Complications During the Procedure:

Complications during CPR depend on the cause of the cardiopulmonary failure. Greater risk is involved if CPR is not administered correctly.

Prior to Procedure:

  • Check for unresponsiveness by tapping the patient and asking “Are you OK?” Look for signs of breathing (chest rise, feel and listen for breath)
  • If someone is with you, have them call 911 immediately.
  • If you are alone, perform CPR for at least 1 to 2 minutes before dialing 911.
  • If an AED is available, have it brought to the scene. If you are alone, retrieve the AED when you call for help.

Description of the Procedure:

During CPR, a trained individual administers mouth-to-mouth resuscitation by blowing air directly into the patient's mouth. The patient's chest is pressed in a regular rhythm to help restore heartbeat.

Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and chest compression are to be alternated as indicated below:

  • Position the child so that he is lying on his back.
  • Open the airway by placing your hand on the child’s forehead and lifting the chin with your other hand.
  • Gently tilt his head slightly backward, pinch the child's nose, and cover his mouth with yours.
  • Breathe twice into his mouth; until you see the chest rise. Breaths should be about one second each.
  • Administer chest compressions.
    • Place the heel of one hand palm down on the chest. Use 1 or 2 hands as necessary.
    • Straighten your arms and lock your elbows; begin pressing down in a straight motion. The compressions should be about 1/3 to 1/2 the depth of the chest.
    • Push hard, push fast, at a rate of 100 compressions/minute
    • Allow the chest to rise completely in between compressions
    • Minimize interruption between compressions
  • After 30 compressions, give two rescue breaths.
  • Use the AED if available after five cycles of CPR or about 2 minutes.
    • Turn the AED on.
    • Attach the pads
    • Follow the prompts. If advised deliver the shock and immediately after resume CPR. If the shock is not advised resume CPR.
  • Continue cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until help arrives or it becomes unsafe to continue. Emergency personnel will take over care of the patient when they arrive.

Chest Cavity and Air Pathway

Chest cavity throat side view

During CPR, make sure to tile the head back to open the airway and allow the chest to rise completely between compressions.

After Procedure

If you have not called 911, do so even if the child has regained consciousness and is breathing on his own. He will need to be evaluated by a physician as soon as possible.

How Long Will It Take?

The length of time for CPR depends on the underlying causes and availability of advanced medical care.

Will It Hurt?

Because CPR is administered when the patient is unconscious, the procedure does not hurt. However, some patients may complain of soreness in the chest after regaining consciousness.

Possible Complications

In frail children, it is possible that ribs may fracture or break during chest compressions. Other complications including puncture of a lung are also possible.

Average Hospital Stay

This depends upon the reason for cardiopulmonary failure and the effectiveness of CPR.

Postoperative Care

Patients will need to be taken to the hospital for evaluation following CPR.


Prognosis is dependent on the initial cause, how soon was the CPR initiated, and whether it was performed appropriately. Many patients are unable to regain normal heartbeat after it has stopped.

Call Your Doctor If Any of the Following Occurs:

You should always call 911 if CPR needs to be administered, even if the patient begins breathing normally again and heartbeat is restored.

For detailed information on CPR please click on the links listed below:

Additional Safety Links
Home Contact Us Patient Portal Link Sitemap Disclaimer Privacy Policy
3005 Royal Blvd. S., STE 110, Alpharetta, GA 30022
Office Hours Monday through Friday 9:00am - 5:00pm (Lunch 1:00pm - 2:00pm)
Call 770-442-5437 for an Appointment, Fax: 770-674-3777
Email us @
© 2019 The World of Pediatrics - All Rights Reserved